Its initial name, the Voskresenskaya (Resurrection) square, that appeared in the XIX century, originates from the name of the Voskresenskiye (Resurrection) gates of the Kitai-gorod. The square obtained its current name only in 1918, being rechristened as the Revolution square after the events of 1917.
The territory of the future Revolution square was occupied by the bed of the river Neglinnaya. In 1516 the river was impounded, and a water mill and the shop selling flour were placed there. The Voskresenskiye (Resurrection) gates of the wall of the Kitay-dorod faced the square. In the beginning of the XVIII century they erected earth fortifications in front of the wall in case of a possible Swedish invasion.
During the first quarter of the XIX century the General plan of the reconstruction of Moscow after the Great fire of 1812 previewed the Neglinnaya river to be enclosed into the reservoir, the earth fortifications to be demolished, the Voskresensky (Resurrection) bridge to be whelmed. Thus, this period can be considered the period of appearance of the Resurrection square, and later the Revolution Square.
In 1879 the house of merchant Karzinkin was built on the square. It soon housed the Big Moscow Hotel with "the Big Moscow tavern". In fact, one of its parts represented a historically prominent in the past Moscow literary life “Pechkin’s coffeehouse”. Here students, writers, merchants and simply lovers of fun and interesting conversations and especially of Russian songs gathered together. Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Alexander Blok, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Ivan Bunin, Anton Chekhov, Alexander Ostrovsky were visitors of the tavern. Unfortunately, to our deep regret the building was demolished in 1976.
In 1892 the new edifice of the Moscow city Duma was constructed at the location of the building of the Public offices.
After rechristening of the square, they raised a monument to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It stood there only for some years, because it was made of nondurable materials.
Many changes occurred during that period.
In 1931 they decided to demolish the Resurrection gates.
In 1936 the building of the Moscow city Duma started to house the Museum of Lenin and the State Historical Museum after the collapse of the USSR in 1993.
In 1935 the building of the hotel "Moscow" was constructed, and demolished and rebuilt recently.
In 1938 the homonymous metro station was opened. Now it is extremely famous among the residents of the capital and its numerous guests for its sculptures. For example, an exam can be successfully passed if you rub the nose of the sculpture of the dog of the frontier guard. Touch the leg of a sailor-revolutionist, and you will succeed in business. But you should not touch the rooster, because people in the know predict misfortune in case of a contact with this sculpture.
In general, sculptor Matvey Manizer created his sculptures taking real people’s likeness.
The personality and the fate of the naval cadet who posed for the figure of the signalman are particularly interesting. It is known that in June 1953 the UK hosted a naval review on the occasion of the enthronement of Queen Elizabeth II. 22 foreign vessels were invited to the celebration in Portsmouth. Cruiser "Sverdlov" with already forty-year-old commodore Olympy Rudakov on board was among them.
Twenty officers from "Sverdlov" led by the commanding officer received an invitation to the Royal ball. On behalf of the Soviet government Rudakov made a present of an ermine mantle to the queen. They say that Elizabeth and Olympy looked into each other's eyes for quite a long time. After a while the captain received a personal invitation from the Queen herself! In addition, there were rumors that her sister Princess Margaret also sympathized the Soviet captain, and that they even spent two days on a tour through the castles of England, of course, with the permission of the government of the USSR.