Nikolskaya street (from 1935 to 1990 called Street of the 25th of October) is a street located in the Tverskoy subdistrict of the Central administrative district of Moscow. It is one of the main streets of the Kitai-Gorod. It goes from the Red Square to Lubyanka Square. The numbering of the houses begins from the Red Square. Nikolskaya street is one of the three streets of the mountainous part of the Kitai-Gorod. From 1935 till1990 the street was called the Street of the 25th of October in memory of the fact that the Red guards fired on the Kremlin from the street during the October fighting and broke in through the Nikolskiye gates destroyed by the shells.
The Nikolskaya street is one of the oldest Moscow streets. The name Nikolskaya comes from the monastery of St. Nicholas the Old, constructed on the Vladimir road, in the place where the street itself is now situated. From 1534 till 1538 before the construction of the Kitai-gorod wall a street called Sretenskaya was integrated into the present streets of Lubyanka and Sretenka (route of the ancient Vladimir road).
The name Nikolskaya, first mentioned in 1547, referred to its part located within the Kitai-gorod. There the Print Yard, the Greek monastery of St. Nicholas (Nikola the Old), the Slavic Greek Latin Academy, the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court were placed. The site of an ancient Greek colony can be found near this street. Influential boyar families tried to take up their residency there. During the Middle Ages they took oath "kissing the cross" at the Church of St. Nicholas the Old on Nikolskaya street. It constituted an important part of the judicial process.
Under Peter the Great the Greek monastery on Nikolskaya street became the center of meetings of the Georgians living in Moscow.
There one of the first bookshops in Moscow was set up. It played a huge role in the history of Russian enlightenment. By 1811 there were as many as 6 bookshops and 1 bookstore on Nikolskaya street.
One of the oldest higher educational institutions of Moscow, the Slavic Greek Latin Academy, opened as far back as the XVII century was established there and placed in the building of the Zaikonospassky monastery. Here they taught philosophy, ancient languages, philology, history, theology and even medicine. In 1802 the Office of the Medical Board ordered to lecture anatomy, physiology, general pathology and therapy during the first year and "the Botanical philosophy and use of medicinal plants" during the second.