Lubyanka Square in located in Moscow center, about 900 meters (980 yd.) to north east from the Red Square between Teatralny proyezd, Nikolskaya street, Novaya place, Lubyansky proezd, Myasnitskaya street, Bolshaya Lubyanka and Pushechnaya street.
Lubyanka is named after the area named in its turn after the district in Novgorod the Great. The name Lubyanka is first mentioned in 1480, when Ivan III commanded the Novgorodians, deported to Moscow after the fall of the Republic, to settle in this area. They built the church of St Sophia, modelled after St Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, and called the area Lubyanka after the Lubyanitsy district of their native city. It was with the participation of Novgorodians the Church of St. Sophia was built and it was them (novgorodians) who called the area Lubyanka. In the early nineteenth century the place was called the St. Nicholas Square because of the St. Nicholas gates of Kitai-gorod located nearby.
Lubyanka Square is best known for Aleksandr V. Ivanov's monumental building constructed in the period from 1897 till 1898. It was originally used by the insurance company Rossiya, but it is better known for housing afterwards the KGB headquarters and its various incarnations, including its present day resident the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB). The square was renamed Dzerzhinsky Square for many years (1926–1990) in honor of Felix Dzerzhinsky, founder of the Soviet security service. Yevgeny Vuchetich's monumental statue of Dzerzhinsky (nicknamed Iron Felix) was erected in the center of the square in 1958.
Europe's largest children's store - massive Detsky Mir (Children World) is across the street. It was built between 1953 and 1957 and fully restored in 2014. The world's largest mechanical clock Raketa can be seen in its main atrium.