This small white temple stands to the west behind the majestic Assumption (Uspensky) Cathedral. Originally it has been built by Pskov masters within the period from 1484 to 1486 as a house temple of the Metropolitans of Moscow. Since 1655 it belongs to the palace temples. The iconostasis exists since 1627 (by Nazariy Istomin). Sidor Pospeyev, Ivan Borisov, Semen Abramov are authors of the murals (1643).
The staircase at the south wall of the church leads to a closed entrance, decorated with amazing fine carvings. Previously it was roofed and went further to the covered gallery at the western facade, on the wall of which the icon of the Holy Mother "Pecherskaya" was painted. They say that members of the imperial family often prayed before this icon, and the church was often called Pecherskaya after the name of the icon. Apparently, due to the fact that it was so closely connected with the royal family, this part of the covered galleries was destroyed and the fresco was lost.
For two centuries until the middle of the XVII century it was a home church of the Moscow metropolitans, and with the establishment of the patriarchate in 1589 it became the home church of the Moscow Patriarchs. In 1655 under the patriarch Nikon the church has been transferred to the Grand Ducal Palace. Special crossings between the palace and the temple were built and covered galleries over the western porches were erected for the queens and princesses to enter the temple directly from their chambers.
The church has been burnt down by the fire of 1737 and later restored by architect I. F. Michurin. A new dome was built and the altar zones were hacked out in the process of restoration.