In the very center of Moscow on the picturesque Borovitsky Hill at the junction of the Moskva River and the Neglinnaya River (enclosed in a pipe at the beginning of the 20th century) the Moscow Kremlin rises being the heart of Moscow, the heart of Russia.
The first mention of Moscow is found in the Ipatiev Chronicle in 1147: the village of Moscow hosted a meeting of Duke of Suzdal Yury Dolgoruky with Duke of Chernigov Prince Svyatoslav Olgovich.
Already in 1156 we find the following information in the Tver chronicle: Duke Yuri Dolgoruky ordered to lay the fortress of Moscow with powerful ramparts, log walls and towers. Its area was a little more than a hectare, the fortress stood on the site of the modern Palace of Congresses at the Trinity Gates of the Kremlin.
Only since the XIV century the name "Kremlin" has started to be used in relation to the Moscow fortress. Within the period from 1339 to 1340 under Duke Ivan Kalita they built a new oak fortress, which occupied almost the entire territory of the modern Kremlin, except for the northern corner, the southeast corner and the strip along the Moscow River. Within the period from 1367 to 1368 under Duke Dmitri Donskoi they erected a white stone walls, which surrounded the entire modern Kremlin. And finally during the period from 1485 to 1495 Italian engineers built the Moscow Kremlin walls existing today. Many of it parts, especially from the south, stand on the old foundations from 1367 to 1368. The height of the walls is from 8 to 19 m, the thickness is from 3.5 to 6.5 m.